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In this lesson, Learn English with Julia presents to you “Spelling of Past Participle and Past Simple / Simple Past”, in order for you to:

  • feel more confident writing in the past tenses
  • know how to spell regular past participles and past simple / simple past

Hello and welcome to this video dedicated to the spelling of the regular past participles and regular simple past.

And when do we use the past participle, we use it in two cases. We use it to form or create the perfect tense.
For example, “He has inherited”, “She had smiled”
present perfect, past perfect, use the perfect continuous tenses.
We also use the past participle to create the passive voice.
You can say “it was mentioned.” It is passive.

And also for the simple past.
All these examples in green can be simple past.
He learned. She inherited. We loved. They smiled. Etc.

Now let’s focus on the spelling changes. Generally, in order to create the regular past participle or regular simple past, I simply add “ED” to the infinitive without “TO”.

All the other scenarios you can see below that, generally mean a change in the spelling of the infinitive without “TO” by adding the ending “-ed”.

SO No. 1 another example let’s to check the verb is sharpening: I have sharpened. And I add “-ed”. Very simple.

Number 2. There are changes. I have a silent “-E” at the end of the verb infinitive. I remove it and add “-ed”. “LOVED” “SMILED” “TIPTOED” “PHONED” etc.

Number 3. If my verb infinitive finish in a consonant. I have to double that consonant before adding “-ed”. Admit ends in a consonant. I bow. 2 “TT”. 2 “PP”. 2 “RR”. Ok? Other example: to sob. Dubbed the “-B” and add “-ed”.

Number 4. When do I not double my final consonant before adding “-ed”? I don’t double a consonant when the end of the infinitive I have two vowels and one consonant. For example: treat. I have two vowels: “EA” + consonant “-T”. I do not touch the verb infinitive. Just add “-ed”. So no changes. “rain” two vowels and a consonant, same thing. I do not touch the verb infinitive. Just add “-ed”. Two vowels, one consonant. Same thing with: to pour. I poured some water. There are two vowels + consonant. I do not touch the verb infinitive. Just add “-ed”.

Scenario No. 5. When I have at the end of my verb a vowel and several consonants or several consonant sounds. Let’s see what this means now. Let’s see how we have a vowel and consonants at the end of the verb. Finish. I have a vowel, several consonants “SH”. So I just add “-ed”. Miss: the same. A vowel + 2 consonants and add “-ed”. Now is when two vowel + consonant sounds Fix. It’s just one consonant. We have a vowel + consonant. But is pronounced “/ks/“. There is a lot of phonetics here. Everything that is underlined in red is generally linked to phonetics. Please review your phonetics, if this is a bit unfamiliar.
So several consonant sounds, several consonant phonemes. We just add “-ed”.

Number 6, now. What if my verb ends in a long vowel sound or a double vowel sound? What do I do? Despite the fact that it is written with a consonant at the end. Show. It’s a double vowel sound, also called diphthong. So double the vowel sound or two vowel sounds. Show. Here I do not double my consonant. I just add “-ed”.
Same thing with: Sail. We have several vowel sounds. So don’t double my consonant.

So here more examples to number 5. Watch. We have several consonant sounds so we do not double the final consonant. Same thing with: walk. We have a long vowel and then a consonant sound. So we do not touch the verb infinitive.

And then No. 6. We have a long vowel or double vowel sound. Such as “wheel”. We have a long sound. We do not double the “L”.

Now here, this is only true in British English, not American English. In British English, if the verb ends in “-L”. I double the “L” before adding “-ed”. Travel, travelled. Compel, compelled. Double “L”

Number 8. If my verb infinitive end in “-y”. I remove it. I replace the “y” by “i”. And I add the ending “-ed”. Now that is true such as: worry, worried. Carry, carried. Fry, fried.

However, in scenario number 9 also end in “-y”. Keep that “y” and just add the “-ed”. So do not change the verb infinitive. Why is that? It is underlined. It links to phonetics. Destroy. Here we have a phonetic transcription. “oy” is a diphthong, so two vowel sounds. Same thing with: play, it ends in “-y”. So I just add “-ed” because play “/ei/” two vowel sounds. So diphthong means I do not touch the verb infinitive. I do not change the “Y”, I keep it. I just add “-ed”.

Another example, scenario number 9. To annoy, annoyed. Two vowel sounds, a diphthong.

And finally, scenario No. 10. If my verb ends in “C” I add a “K” before adding the “-ed” ended. To picnic. They picnicked. “C-K-E-D” The same with: mimic. Ends in “-C”. Add “K” and “-ed”. So lot of difficulties.

You must see this video a couple of times.
A few keys for you in the classroom.
Don’t forget to go to phonetics video and to your phoneme chart as you can see everything has to do with pronunciation in English.
It is essential and you also watch the video on the pronunciation of the “-ed” ending, which is also very interesting. The “-ed” ending has three pronunciations depending on the sounds at the end of the infinitive.

So you can have things such as watched. We have strong sounds, the “-ed” is pronounced “-T”. Watched
Carried is quite soft so we add a “D” sound
And if already ends in “D” or “T”, like: end, ended pronunciation is / ɪd /.
So, we have three pronunciations: / t /, / d / and / ɪd /. So watch that video.

Thanks for watching!

Key Words listed in English:

  • past participle
  • simple past / past simple